Congo flag Congo: Economic and Political Overview

The political framework of Congo

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Denis Sassou Nguesso (since 25 October 1997)
Prime Minister: Anatole Collinet Makosso (since 12 May 2021)
Next Election Dates
Presidential: March 2026
Senate: 2029
National Assembly: July 2027
Main Political Parties
Although the Republic of Congo is formally a multi-party country, the Congolese Labour Party (democratic socialist) is the dominant and opposition parties are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. Other major parties include:

- Alliance of the Presidential Majority (AMP)
- Action Movement for Renewal (MAR)
- Citizen's Rally (RC)
- Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (MCDDI)
- Movement for Unity, Solidarity, and Work (MUST)
- Pan-African Union for Social Development (UPADS)
- Party for the Unity and the Republic (PUR)
- Patriotic Union for Democracy and Progress (UPDP)
- Perspectives and Realities Club (CPR)
- Rally for Democracy and Social Progress (RDPS)
- Republican and Liberal Party (PRL)
- Union of Democratic Forces (UDF)
- Union for Democracy and Republic (UDR)
- Union for the Republic (UR)
Executive Power
According the Constitution, the President of the Republic is the chief executive and the head of state. The President is elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term (with a maximum of two mandates). Following the approval of a new Constitution after a referendum in 2015, the Republic of Congo became a semi-presidential republic by the creation of the post of prime minister (who is responsible to the legislature and the cabinet).
Legislative Power
The legislative power is vested in the parliament, which is composed of two chambers: the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale, whose members are elected for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies - 72 seats); and the Senate (Sénat, with members elected for a six-year term by district, local and regional councils - 151 seats).
However, the executive has a major role the legislative process, as the Cabinet deliberates on bills, draft ordinances and draft decrees. Furthermore, the President has the power - concurrently with members of parliament - to initiate bills to be tabled in parliament.

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Not Free

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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Latest Update: April 2024

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