Armenia flag Armenia: Economic and Political Overview

Foreign trade figures of Armenia

Foreign Trade in Figures

Foreign trade in Armenia represents 70.1% of GDP (World Bank, latest data available), and the country follows an open and liberal policy in regard to international commerce. Overall, minerals represent more than half of total exports. Main export commodities include copper ores, undenatured ethyl alcohol, cigars, ferroalloys, and gold. Armenia mainly imports petroleum gases and oils, medicaments, diamonds, and motor cars.

Armenia's main export destinations are Russia (26.8%), China (13.3%), Switzerland (12.1%), Bulgaria (6.7%), and the Netherlands (6.4%). The Russian Federation is also the main import partner (33.5%), followed by China (16.2%), Iran (8.2%), Italy (4.2%) and Germany (3.9% - data Comtrade). The country has been searching for new energy sources, especially after the Russian-Georgian conflict, which temporarily disrupted its hydrocarbon supply and revealed the country's energy vulnerabilities. Tensions remain with a couple of its neighbouring countries, such as Azerbaijan and Turkey, and have an impact on trade. Armenia's closeness with Russia and its adhesion to the Eurasian Economic Union limit the country's ability to further integrate with the EU (that considered as a whole is the country’s main export destination).

Armenia has a structural trade deficit, which was estimated at 8.5% of GDP in 2021 (World Bank). According to figures by WTO, in 2021, Armenia exported goods with a total value of USD 3 billion (+18.8% year-on-year), while it imported goods with a total value of USD 5.3 billion (recording an increase of 17.5%). With regards to services, the country exported USD 1.6 billion and imported USD 1.2 billion (+56.2% and +32.8% vis-à-vis one year earlier, respectively). According to the latest figures by the National Statistics Committee (NSC), Armenia's exports in the first ten months of 2022 rose by 71.2% against January-October 2021, to about USD 4.2 billion, whereas imports reached USD 6.8 billion, an increase of 63.5% compared to the same period one year earlier. The bulk of Armenian exports were mining industry products (slightly above 20%) and precious and semi-precious stones and metals (18.5%).

 
Foreign Trade Values 20182019202020212022
Imports of Goods (million USD) 4,9635,5144,5595,3578,769
Exports of Goods (million USD) 2,4122,6402,5443,0235,360
Imports of Services (million USD) 2,1922,5219811,3382,547
Exports of Services (million USD) 2,2022,4341,0991,7354,177

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 92.596.169.579.298.4
Trade Balance (million USD) -1,763-1,722-1,382-1,505-1,859
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -1,753-1,809-1,264-1,108-148
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 13.311.6-31.512.933.8
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 5.016.0-33.516.654.4
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 53.154.839.743.850.7
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 39.441.429.835.347.7

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20232024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) 21.98.24.75.45.2
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) 28.37.35.86.57.6

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Among others, Armenia is member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), of the World Bank etc.  
 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2022
United Arab Emirates 10.1%
China 7.0%
Switzerland 4.8%
Iraq 4.7%
Netherlands 4.0%
See More Countries 69.4%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2022
China 15.4%
Germany 4.6%
United States 4.1%
Italy 3.2%
Türkiye 3.0%
See More Countries 69.6%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

5.3 bn USD of products exported in 2022
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 12.5%
Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted...Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted or set (excl. unmounted stones for pick-up styluses, worked stones, suitable for use as parts of meters, measuring instruments or other articles of chapter 90) 7.9%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 7.8%
Cigars, cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes of...Cigars, cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes of tobacco or of tobacco substitutes 6.0%
Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength...Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength of < 80%; spirits, liqueurs and other spirituous beverages (excl. compound alcoholic preparations of a kind used for the manufacture of beverages) 5.5%
See More Products 60.3%
8.6 bn USD of products imported in 2022
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 6.9%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 6.7%
Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons 6.3%
Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted...Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted or set (excl. unmounted stones for pick-up styluses, worked stones, suitable for use as parts of meters, measuring instruments or other articles of chapter 90) 4.5%
Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular...Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular networks or for other wireless networks; other apparatus for the transmission or reception of voice, images or other data, incl. apparatus for communication in a wired or wireless network [such as a local or wide area network]; parts thereof (excl. than transmission or reception apparatus of heading 8443, 8525, 8527 or 8528) 4.4%
See More Products 71.2%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import Export Flows.

 

Main Services

4.2 bn USD of services exported in 2022
58.01%
16.73%
13.89%
4.71%
2.48%
1.45%
1.33%
0.91%
0.27%
0.21%
2.6 bn USD of services imported in 2022
50.29%
30.90%
5.72%
4.54%
2.52%
1.59%
1.43%
1.40%
1.12%
0.49%

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

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Latest Update: February 2024

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